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When writing academically, you also have to report which sources you have been using, which you do by citing your sources directly in the text and in a reference-list at the end of the work.
Why is it important?
According to copyright law, the author of the original text should always receive credit for his or her work, so you must always cite the source in your text. Careful referencing also helps you avoid being suspected of plagiarism. Anyone reading your work should be able to check that you have interpreted the source correctly, and be able to read the material you have used in its entirety. You do not need to refer to general knowledge that many people are familiar with.
Copyright is a law that protects literary and artistic works. Plagiarism is the act of presenting someone else's work as your own, which is an infringement of copyright.
Academic and scientific writing is built on the research in a particular field. Ideas, theories and facts from this research must be cited appropriately in your text. Keeping your sources clear and consistent will make the text easier for your reader to follow. If you have referenced a source in one paragraph it must be referenced again if used in a new paragraph. If a citation consists of only a few words or short sentences, you can set it in quotation marks within the text itself. If the citation is more than 40 words or three lines, set it apart from the text as a block quote. Block quotes do not have quotation marks and are indented on the left.
When referencing sources in-text, the author's last name and year of publication should be included in the text. Page numbers are also included when it is a direct citation. The year and page numbers always occur in parentheses. The author's last name can also be included in the parentheses if it is left out of the in-text reference. For example:
According to Hjern (2012), non-European immigrants state that they suffer from health problems three to four times more than Swedish-born, while at the same time, immigrants who are asylum seekers and paperless have limited access to Swedish care.
Overseas immigrants suffer from health problems three to four times more than Swedish-born, while at the same time, immigrants who are asylum seekers and paperless have limited access to Swedish care (Hjern, 2012).
You can also cite sources by making a quote, which is a literal representation of someone else's text. Just as with a summary, clear source references are required with the author's name and the year of publication of the source. When quoting, you also specify the page number of the source. For example:
Hjern (2012) argues that "integration into Swedish society is important to the health of those who come to settle in Sweden" (p. 257).
Integration into Swedish society is important to the health of those who come to settle in Sweden. This is shown by comparisons between the health of those who immigrated to Sweden and that of their children who were born in Sweden. Analyzes of the ULF surveys provide a fairly consistent picture: the health status and social situation of Swedish-born children of immigrants are clearly better than that of their foreign-born parents. (Brain, 2012, p. 257)
Reference: Hjern, A. (2012). Migration and public health. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 66(9), 255–267. doi:10.1177/1403494812459619
Use a reference style to format references and reference list uniformly and correctly. Use templates and examples in a style guide to format your references uniformly and correctly.
The reference styles are usually divided into three main types:
Parenthetical or author-year
The source is indicated with the author's last name and year of publication in parentheses in the text.
For example APA and Harvard.
The source is indicated by a number in the text.
For example Vancouver.
The source is indicated by a footnote at the bottom of the text page using a numeric note in the text.
For example Oxford.
Different diciplines and subjects use different reference styles and style guides. Therefore, ask your teacher or supervisor which reference style and style guide you should use.
Style guides for some common reference styles
Use templates and examples in a style guide to format your references uniformly and correctly. The templates and examples show what information should be included, and in what order the information should be placed.
Different disciplines and subjects use different reference styles and style guides. Therefore, ask your teacher or supervisor which reference style and style guide you should use.
Checklist for references
Examples of difficult references to format according to APA 7
Here are examples of sources that may be difficult to format references to. The examples are based on "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association" (7th ed., 2020). Note that the examples are an interpretation of the manual, and not an exact reproduction.
3. Title of contribution, [type of contribution].
4. Conference name, Location.
5. DOI or URL
Sayuti, S., Muhamad, M., & Jumhar N. J. (2017, August 15-25). The Buggy Ride [Poster presentation]. IFLA WLIC 2017 – Libraries. Solidarity. Society., Wrocław, Poland. http://library.ifla.org/id/eprint/1896/1/p-185-sayuti-en_poster.jpg
(PDF from the web:)
Porter, M., Omar, M., Campus, C., & Edinburgh, S. (2008, January). Marketing to the bottom of the pyramid: Opportunities in emerging markets [Paper presentation]. 7th International Congress Marketing Trends, Venice, Italy. http://www.escp-eap.eu/conferences/marketing/2008_cp/Maktoba.pdf
In text, parenthetical form: (Sayuti et al., 2013)
All authors should be included even if they were physically absent during the presentation.
Additional information about year and date: If the conference lasted for more than one day then all the dates for the conference should be included, even if it is likely that the presentation of the contribution only occurred during one day. The reason for this is to help readers find the source. See the example above for how multiple dates should be written.
If the document from the conference is found in a journal or a book, don´t use this format. Use instead the same format as a journal article or a book with editors.
1. Author or Name of group [@username].
3. The first words in the forum post, up to 20 words [Online forum post].
4. Webbpage or Social media site name.
NASA Subject Matter Expert [OB SeaDAS - knowles]. (24 maj 2022). The BandMath expression to replicate the Chl GlobColour equation 6 of the paper you reference would be [Online forumpost]. NASA Earthdata. https://forum.earthdata.nasa.gov/viewtopic.php?t=3172&sid=57444dc29c94a03f690f0ad431666f70
When the source is mentioned in the text: NASA Subject Matter Expert (2022)
In text, parenthetical form: (NASA Subject Matter Expert, 2022)
Include the @ symbol in the reference if it is a part of the username.
Replicate the spelling in the title, including spelling errors or incorrect capitalization, it should be just as the source is written in the reference.
Emojis should be included in the reference, preferably replicated. It counts as one word. If you can´t include the emoji symbol write the name of the emoji in brackets. [Name emoji]. For example [Face with tears of joy emoji] for 😂.
For a style guide about Swedish legislative materials follow the link to Jönköping University Librarys guide. (Written in Swedish.)
Learn more about referencing legislative materials by following the link to Purdue University.
Use the same template as a periodical article in the reference list.
1. Author or Name of group.
4. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
Underdown, A., Barlow, J., Chung, V., & Stewart-Brown, S. (2006). Massage intervention for promoting mental and physical health in infants aged under six months. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005038.pub2
In text, parenthetical form: (Underdown et al., 2006)
If the Cochrane database name is written in the text do not italicize it.
- Title [Map/karta].
- Publisher or retrieval date.
- DOI eller URL
- Dynamically created maps like Google Maps have no title, so when writing the title in the reference write a description, in the case of the example above: Stockholm, Sweden. Another example of a description like this for a different map is: [Google Maps directions for driving with a car from Stockholm, Sweden, to Gothenburg, Sweden]. Also include the retrieval date for these maps.
- Google. (n.d.). [Google Maps Stockholm, Sweden]. Retrieved June 1, 2022, from https://tinyurl.com/cwnzcak2 External link.
- Easterbrook, D. J. (1976). Geologic map of western Whatcom County, Washington [Map]. U.S. Geological Survey. https://doi.org/10.3133/i854B External link.
RefWorks is a web-based program that helps you manage your references, i.e. your sources.
With RefWorks you can:
- import references from databases and webpages
- organise references in folders
- import in-text references and a list of references in text documents
Things to consider before you start using RefWorks
- Allow pop-ups.
- If you are writing collaboratively with somebody in a document, you can’t use two accounts with the same document in Word. In google Docs you can.
- Don’t use the function “track changes” in Word when creating a list of references.
Processing of personal data
When you create the RefWorks account you have to approve Proquests terms and Conditions
your name and your e-mail address. Make sure to read the terms of agreement in full.
Spreading information containing personal information is not allowed. Avoid uploading files with recorded or transcribed interviews
Create a RefWorks account
RefWorks is free for all students and personnel connected to Luleå University of Technology. In order to use RefWorks you need to create an account.
To use RefWorks in, for example, Microsoft Word or Google Docs, you need to install plugins. There are different to choose from:
- Save to RefWorks is a bookmark that you can install in your browser's favorite fields (bookmarks). When browsing a site that has references that you want to add to your RefWorks account, click on the bookmark to save references and full texts. Save to RefWorks should work in all modern browsers.
- Write-N-Cite is a plugin that allows you to run a simplified version of RefWorks inside Microsoft Word.
- RefWorks Citation Manager (RCM) is a newer and more modern version of Write-N-Cite .
- RefWorks for Google Docs is a plugin that allows you to use a simplified version of RefWorks inside Google Docs.
Read more about different plugins via the links below.
Legacy RefWorks has been closed down and can no longer be used. If you have not updated your account, you need to create a new one in RefWorks. You can find information on how to do this higher up on the page.
You can upgrade documents created in Legacy RefWorks to be compatible with the new version of RefWorks.
When you open a document created with Legacy RefWorks and log in to RefWorks Citation Manager or Write-n-Cite with your new RefWorks credentials, you will be prompted to upgrade the document. Follow the on-screen instructions to upgrade your document.
Learn how to use RefWorks
Do you need help?
If you have questions about how to use RefWorks, go through the help material above. If you then have further questions about use, contact the library. Opens in new window.
If you have problems with the installation of plugins, contact Service Point Opens in new window..
Other reference management programs
There are several reference management programs that can help you when writing a report or thesis.
A reference management program helps you, among other things, to:
- collect references from different sources
- create reference list
- insert references in your text documents
- design references according to different reference styles, for example AMA, APA, Vancouver
The links below are suggestions of some of the programs available to handle references. The University Library does not provide support for the programs.