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Examples of difficult references to write according to APA 6th

Published: 29 September 2016

Here are examples of sources that may be difficult to write references to. The examples are based on "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association" (6th ed., 2010). Note that the examples are an interpretation of the manual, and not an exact reproduction.

Here you find examples of:
- Music
- Conferences, posters
- Mailing lists, online forums
- Web page
- Legislative materials
- Patents
- Standards
- Cochrane review
- Maps
- Curriculum


Music recording

  1. Writer
  2. (Copyright year)
  3. Title of song [Inspelad/ recorded by X. Artist if different from writer]
  4. On/På Title of album [CD, cassette]
  5. Location: Skivbolag/Label. (Date of recording if different from song copyright date)

Fuller, J. (n.d.) You're No Good. [Recorded by B. Dylan]. On Bob Dylan: studio album [CD]. District of Columbia: Columbia Records. (1961)

(Here the recording year is other than the year when the song was written).

Enter track in text citations:
(Fuller, 1961, track 10).


Dylan. B. (1989). Oh Mercy. [CD] District of Columbia: Columbia Records.

Conferences, posters

1. Article Author
2. Year of publication
3. Article Title
4. "In:" conference title with ev. order number
5. Location
6. The date of the conference
7. Pages

The order is approximate, but the above information should be included. Conference contributions can be of different types: Preprints that are published before the conference, Proceedings that are edited and published after the conference or journal articles.

Falk, C. (2013, January) The Virtual Library. Poster presented at the meeting of IFLA, Helsinki.

Engineering Conference (1979). 1979 Engineering Conference: November 27-29, New Orleans Hilton, New Orleans, LA. Atlanta, GA: TAPPI Press.

Proceedings of the 7th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, August 24-28. Vancouver, BC.

(PDF from the web:)
Porter, M. Omar, M., campus, C., & Edinburgh, S. (2008, January). Marketing to the Bottom of the Pyramid: Opportunities in Emerging Markets. Paper presented at the 7th International Congress Marketing Trends, Venice, Italy. Retrieved from

Citation in the text:
(Engineering Conference, 1979)

Mailing lists, online forums

1. Author
2. Year, month, day
3. Title
4. [form]
5. Hämtad från... /Retrieved from ...

Falk, C. (2014, 13 februari). Re: ingen rädder för vargen här [meddelande på e-postlista]. Hämtad från

Rampersad, T. (2005, June 8). Re: Traditional knowledge [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from

Web page

If you make a in text citation to a web site in its entirety, it does not need to be in the reference list. It can look like this in the text:

.... Luleå University website has a clear informative purpose and provides good information to prospective students ( .....

Sometimes you might want to include an entire website in the reference list, and then it can look like this:

Vårdhandboken. (2011) [webbplats]. Inera AB. Hämtad 2012-09-14 från

A special section of Vårdhandboken can look like this:

Hambraeus A.& Tammelin A.,(2010). Personalföreskrifter på operationsavdelning. I Vårdhandboken. Inera AB. Hämtad 2011-05-02, från http://www.vå

Citation in the text:
(Vårdhandboken, 2011)
(Hambraeus & Tammelin, 2010)

Learn more about referencing websites:

Legislative materials

Propositions (in chronological order):

Prop 1981/82:169 Förslag till åtgärder för att främja övergång från hyresrätt till bostadsrätt.

Citation in the text:
(Prop 1981/82: 169)

Other preparatory work

NJA II 1999, s.213 ff. Ny lagstiftning mot diskriminering i arbetslivet.
(= Nytt Juridiskt Arkiv II år, first page)

Citation in the text:
(NJA II 1999, p.213)


Direktkonsumtion av livsmedel 1995-1999, milj. kronor. Jordbruksstatistisk årsbok 2001. Tab.17.2.

Miljöskyddskostnader i industrin 1999 och 2000. Statistiska meddelanden. MI 23 SM 0101.

Citation in the text:
(Direktkonsumtion av livsmedel 1995-1999, 2001)

Court Cases

NJA 1994 s. 637 Tryckfrihetsbrott. Fråga om ansvar för förtalsbrott och om bestämmande av skadestånd för lidande. AD 1988:47
(= Nytt Juridiskt Arkiv I, year, the page where the case begins or case number. Note: NJA I is always referenced without ordinal I.)

Citation in the text:
(NJA 1994 p. 637)


Titles of legal journals are often abbreviated, eg: SvJT (Svensk juristtidning), NIR (Nordiskt immateriellt rättsskydd).

There are no special rules for citing legal books, cite it like a normal book.

Edelstam, G. (1997). Bidragsbedrägeri. SvJT 82 (4), s. 327-342.

Lehrberg, B. (1998). Avtalstolkning. 2. uppl. Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik. (Institutet för rättsvetenskaplig forskning. 155).

Citation in the text:
(Lehrberg, 1998)

Learn more about referencing legislative materials:


1. Patent Holder + year
2. Patent Title
3. Patent code: country code + patent number
4. Official publisher

Kamijo, E., & Nogawa, S. (1989). US Patent No. 4,861,750. Washington, DC: US ​​Patent and Trademark Office.

Citation in the text:
(US Patent No. 4,861,750, 1989)


1. Issuing means
2. Year
3. The standard number
4. The standard title
5. Place of publication
6. Publisher

International Organization for Standardization. (1992). ISO 9000: International standards for quality management. Genève, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization.

British Standards Institute. (2002). BS EN ISO 11623: Transportable gas cylinders: periodic inspection and testing of composite gas cylinders. London: BSI.

Cochrane review

1. Author
2. Year of publication
3. Title
4. Cochrane Database
5. Issue
6. DOI number

Underdown, A., Barlow, J., Chung, V., & Stewart-Brown, S. ( 2006). Massage intervention for promoting mental and physical health in infants aged under six months. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (4). doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005038.pub2

Citation in the text:
(Underdown, Barlow, Chung & Stewart-Brown, 2006)


  1. Author
  2. Date
  3. Title [Map/karta]
  4. Edition
  5. Scale
  6. Number
  7. Place of publication: publisher

Map sheet:

Easterbrook, D. J. (1976). Geologic map of western Whatcom County, Washington [map]. 1:62,500. Miscellaneous investigations series, map 1-854-B. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey.

From an atlas:

Magocsi, P. R. (2003). Population movements, 1944-1948 [map]. 1:8 890 000. In P. R. Magocsi, Historical atlas of central Europe. (Rev. & ex. ed.) Seattle: University of Washington Press. (p. 53).

From the Web:

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [cartographer]. (2009). Cahaba River Natural Refuge [map]. 1:24,000. Retrieved from

Google Maps:

Nooksack, WA. (22 Apr. 2010). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved from,+WA+98247/@48.902502,-122.279034,15z/data=!4m2!3m1!1s0x5485b182319f17eb:0x2e9457dcd329cd5e?hl=en


From the web:

1. Authority
2. Year
3. Title
4. Retreived date from URL

Skolverket (2011). Curriculum for the Preschool Lpfö 98 (rev. ed.). Hämtad 2018-07-10 från

Citation in the text:
According to Skolverket (2011) ...
To clarify which curriculum you refer to, you can state the title in the text:
According to Curriculum for the Preschool Lpfö 98 ... (Skolverket, 2011).