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Steels - doctoral course

Published: 13 December 2017

7.5 credits, January 25, 2018 – April 2018 in Luleå.

Course plan for Steels PhD course, 7,5 högskolepoäng, 2018

Esa Vuorinen, Associate Professor, Division of Materials Science

Start date: January 25 2018, room E237 at 10.15

Final presentation: April 2018


  • To increase the knowledge in the field of heat treatment of metallic materials.
  • To increase the knowledge about different steel qroups and qualities.
  • To introduce basic Thermo-mechanical treatment methods and their importance for the properties of steels.
  • Basic knowledge of powder metallurgical (P/M) methods and properties of materials produced by P/M
  • Knowledge of Welding metallurgy and especially connections between microstructure and properties of the welds.


Heat treatment and thermo-mechanical treatment: Steels, 4th edition. Bhadeshia and Honeycombe. Elsevier Ltd 2017. ISBN 978-0-08-100270-4

Scientific articles in different fields will be selected and analyzed, according to the background and interest of the participants.

Welding metallurgy: Introductory chapter in Steels.

Powder metallurgy: Written material from different powder producers, producers of sintered parts. EPMA European Powder Metallurgy Association: Introduction to Powder Metallurgy.

Reference literature

Basics in heat treatment:

Callister,W.D. Materials Science and Engineering an introduction.

Askeland,D.R. The science and engineering of materials.

Van Vlack. Elements of material science and engineering.

Smith,W.F. Principles of materials science and engineering.

Budinski,K.G. and Budinski, M.K. Engineering materials properties and selection.

Materiallära. Willy Leijon [red.]. Liber förlag 15:e utgåvan. 2014.

Heat treatment and thermo-mechanical treatment:

Stål och värmebehandling. 2010. Swerea IVF. ISBN9789186401047

Thelning. Steel and heat treatment.

Smith. Structure and properties of engineering alloys. 

Bhadeshia. Bainite in steels, 2nd edition.


Introductory lectures to different areas will be presented by Dr Esa Vuorinen and Dr Farid Akhtar active at the Division of Materials Science, Ltu.

Guest seminars will be presented by invited lecturers.

Seminar tasks in which the participants will make written summaries of different articles.

The participants will perform one or more laboratory exercises in which the participants will emphasize some special aspect of steels of special interest.


In the basic courses in the field of Materials Science and Engineering, the equilibrium structures in some metallic systems are treated as well as the main non-equilibrium structures, in especially steels.

The heat treatment procedures that normally are mentioned for steels are normalising, hardening by quenching and tempering, recrystallizing annealing, stress relieving and spheroidizing annealing (full annealing in the USA). For other metallic systems the particle hardening procedure by precipitation hardening of Al-Cu and other Al-alloys are treated.

The different hardening mechanisms, grain boundary-, solution-, particle- (particle and precipitation respectively) and strain- hardening are also normally treated in the basic courses.

Different hardening procedures often use a combination of hardening mechanisms and give an additive effect from them. Therefor it is possible to increase the mechanical strength of different alloy systems by combining these hardening mechanisms.

In practice the mechanical (as well as physical) properties of steels and other mechanical materials are achieved by a combination of thermal and mechanical treatments (thermo-mechanical treatments). This is enabled by the special possibilities that are created by the phase transformation that occurs at about 730 oC and in which it is possible to change the phase in the steel from the austenitic phase, with a FCC-lattice structure to one out of several possible structures that are in equilibrium or non-equilibrium state.


Esa Vuorinen

Vuorinen, Esa - Professor

Organisation: Engineering Materials, Materials Science, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics
Phone: +46 (0)920 493449