In Sweden there are two doctoral degrees, doctoral degrees and licentiate degrees. Doctoral degree is the degree obtained after completing a four-year postgraduate degree. In order to obtain a doctorate, the doctoral student must have been approved for the examinations that are part of the doctoral degree program, and must have obtained a doctoral thesis (doctoral dissertation)approved. During graduate education you are a PhD student.
A licentiate degree may terminate an education or graduate when you have reached half way to a doctoral degree. In order to obtain a licentiate degree, the doctoral student must have been approved for the tests included in that part of the course, and must have obtained an approved scientific paper. The research product is called a licentiate thesis, and is presented and examined in seminars. Obtaining a licentiate degree occurs to varying degrees in different fields of science.
Doctoral dissertation is the result of a research education. The research area and research results are presented in the dissertation. The thesis may be presented in the form of a coherent scientific work (monograph) or in the form of a number of scientific papers, articles, with a general introduction to the research field (dissertation thesis).
Thesis defence is the seminar at which the doctoral student presents his dissertation for general review. At the thesis defence there must be an opponent whose task is to specifically examine the dissertation. The opponent presents his questions and views at the thesis defence. A grade committee consisting of at least three persons grades the dissertation as approved or failed.
The Commencement ceremony
The doctoral comencement is the year's major ceremony and academic ceremony that takes place in November each year. The university rewards those who have undergone doctoral studies and defended a doctoral dissertation. During the promotion, the insignia of knowledge is distributed: the ring, the hat / the laurel and the diploma.