In Sweden, there are two doctoral degrees, doctoral degrees and licentiate degrees. The doctoral degree is the degree you receive after completing a four-year doctoral program. In order to obtain a doctoral degree, the doctoral student must have passed the exams included in the doctoral program, and have passed a scientific dissertation (doctoral dissertation). During the doctoral program, you are a doctoral student.
A licentiate degree can complete an education or be taken when you have halfway to a doctoral degree. In order to obtain his licentiate degree, the doctoral student must have passed the exams included in that part of the education, and have passed a scientific thesis approved. The research product is called a licentiate thesis that is presented and examined in a seminar context. The fact that you take a licentiate degree occurs to varying degrees in different fields of science.
The doctoral dissertation is the research product that the doctoral education results in. The research area and the research results are presented here. The dissertation can be presented in the form of a coherent scientific work (monograph) or in the form of a number of scientific essays, articles, with a general introduction to the field of research (summary dissertation).
Dissertation is the seminar where the doctoral student submits his / her dissertation for general review. During the dissertation, there must be an opponent whose task is to review the dissertation in particular. The opponent presents his questions and views during the dissertation. A grading committee consisting of at least three people grades the dissertation as approved or failed.
The doctoral dissertation is this year's grand ceremony and academic celebration. Then the university rewards those who have completed postgraduate education and defended a doctoral dissertation. At the promotion, the insignia of learning is handed out: the ring, the hat / laurel wreath and the diploma.