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Over the last decades, the global focus on CO2 emissions and climate change has interested also cement based building materials.

Cement production is contributing for around 6-8 % of the overall anthropogenic COemissions. High-temperature requirements, emission of hazardous substances from cement kilns are some other factors requiring special attention in the cement industry.

Supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) are used in concrete as a rapid countermeasure to replace Portland cement (PC) and to significantly reduce the CO2 emissions. SCM can be of different nature. They can come from industrial manufacturing as by-products (residual sources), e.g. slags or fly ashes, or from natural sources, e.g. clays and natural pozzolans