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Over the last decades, the global focus on CO 2 emissions and climate change has also interested cement-based building materials.

Cement production is contributing to around 6-8% of the overall anthropogenic CO 2 emissions. High-temperature requirements, emission of hazardous substances from cement kilns are some other factors requiring special attention in the cement industry.

Supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) are used in concrete as a rapid countermeasure to replace Portland cement (PC) and to significantly reduce CO 2 emissions. SCM can be of a different nature. They can come from industrial manufacturing as by-products (residual sources), eg kinds of fly ashes, or from natural sources, eg clays and natural pozzolans