On Transfer of Work Material to Tools
Bulk forming and cutting are widely used to shape metals in industrial production. Bulk forming is characterized by large strains, extensive plastic deformation and large surface expansions. Cutting is characterized by high speeds, high pressures and high temperatures. The prevailing conditions during these processes lead to transfer of work material to tools. In bulk forming this is a significant problem. The transferred work material is hardened and becomes harder than the work material, causing galling. This leads to high friction and high forming forces, bad surface finish of the formed products and significant difficulties to produce complicated geometries. In cutting, transfer of work material can be desired for protection of the tool surface. However, the transfer film has to be of the correct type to provide a stable and predictive behaviour during operation.
In this thesis the influence from tool material and surface treatment on work material transfer has been studied for both applications, with the use of simplified laboratory test methods followed by extensive surface studies. Both the tendency to, appearance of and chemical composition of work material transfer is evaluated. The results are compared with real industrial examples, to ensure that the correct mechanisms are mimicked.
In forming, the problems arise when poor lubrication prevails, due to high forming forces or large surface expansions. The transfer of work material can then be avoided with the use of a galling resistant coating, offering low adhesion. However, the coating has to be as smooth as possible, to avoid activation of the work material and subsequent transfer.
In cutting, the desired transfer film can be obtained by choosing the correct cutting parameters. The geometry and material of the fabricated component is often predetermined, setting the general cutting conditions, but the cutting speed influences the formation of the transfer film. Too low speed or too high speed leads to an unstable cutting process and poor surface finish of the piece. The speed intervals for each mechanism are partly determined by the tool material and thus by the tool coating.