Friction and Wear Mechanisms of Ceramic Surfaces: With Applications to Micro Motors and Hip Joint Replacements
Surfaces exposed to wear always transform and typically a layer of new structure and composition is formed. This layer, often called tribofilm, changes the friction and wear properties. Tribofilms formed on ceramic surfaces may consist of products from chemical reactions between the materials in contact and the environment or consist of compacted wear debris.
In this thesis, focus has been to understand the friction and wear mechanisms of ceramic surfaces, as well as acquiring knowledge about the properties of the new surfaces created during wear. Ultimately, this understanding can be used to develop ceramic systems offering high or low friction, while the material loss in both cases should be minimised. Such ceramics could improve numerous tribological systems and applications, out of which ultrasonic motors, low-friction ceramic coatings and hip joint replacements have been treated in this thesis. Friction and wear tests, and subsequently various surface analyses have been essential for the knowledge about the friction, wear and tribofilm formation.
For ultrasonic motors of the studied type, the highest driving force is achieved when the friction is high between the alumina components in the friction drive system. The highest friction was here accomplished with a thick tribofilm on the surfaces. The formation of such tribofilms was favoured by dry conditions, and using an initially rough surface, which increased the initial generation of wear debris.
In a detailed investigation of the importance of microtopography on tribofilm formation and friction behaviour, a low-friction, PVD coating of TaC/a-C was studied. This coating showed a very low, stable friction. High sensitivity to the microtopography was demonstrated, smooth coating exhibited a faster build-up of a dense tribofilm of fine ground material on the counter steel surface and subsequently a faster running in and friction decrease.
The life span for total hip joint replacements can be prolonged by minimising the wear particles that cause inflammation and subsequent implant loosening. In this work coatings of amorphous/nanocrystalline silicon nitride have shown low wear rate, and hence produce a minimum of wear particles. Furthermore, these particles that are expected to resorb in vivo. This system therefore has potential to reduce problems with inflammation and osteolysis connected to wear particles.