Ultrasonic treatment has been introduced as a potential replacement for thermal annealing after the metal-forming process. By this process, an appropriate combination of ductility and strength can be achieved. The microstructural mechanism includes the reduction of dislocation density, destruction of twin bands, and redistribution of dislocations near the grain boundaries. Compared to the conventional heat treatment, the benefits of this technique are significantly lower energy consumption and inhibition of grain growth, residual thermal stresses, and formation of detrimental precipitates.
Link to related articles: