Of particular interest are the production, distribution, and consumption of forest products and services. For example, theory of supply and demand, which attempts to describe, explain, and predict the price and quantity of forest products and services produced and consumed, is the basis for a wide range of the research conducted. Estimation of timber supply and demand, identifying the gap between the supply and demand; and domestic and international trade in forest products at regional, national, and international level are areas studied. Lately, non-timber products and services (biodiversity and recreation for example) have been integrated in the research area. In this context, the economic and distributional impacts of carbon markets and forest carbon sequestration, forest certification, and use of forest biomass for energy production are highlighted, which addresses the issue of optimizing multiple objectives. In addition, multiple equilibria and consumer choices that incorporate context specific and dynamic preferences are being explored. The methods employed include: optimisation; linear and non-linear programming; econometrics and; partial and general equilibrium.